Supporting Research

Algae health libraries contain thousands of published scientific references covering 45 years of international researches. A few of these studies are referenced here in order to provide a broader view of the extent of scientific research about algae and their nutrients, like those contained in BAC.The number of research studies done on nutrients and phytonutrients in algae is in the hundreds of thousands and continues to grow each day. Some nutrients are more beneficial then others, but all nutrients are more efficient when occurring naturally within the whole food. Many studies of specific nutrients are included here as they can inform you about the extraordinary health benefits of these nutrients that occur in BAC.These research briefs are not intended as medical advice or as a guide for self-treatment. Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner for diagnosis or treatment of any disease or medical condition.
REFERENCES TO RESEARCH AND ARTICLES

 

Effectiveness:

  • 1. Gobantes, I, et al., “Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin kinetics after ingestion of individual doses by immature rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss,” Jour of Agric and Food Chemistry, February 1997: 45(2) 454-458.
  • 2. Nakagawa, K, et al., “Inhibition of beta-carotene and astaxanthin of NADPH-dependent microsomal phospholipid peroxidation,” Jour Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, June 1997: 43(3) 345-355.
  • 3. Jorgensen, K., et al, “Carotenoid scavenging of radicals. Effect of carotenoid structure and oxygen partial pressure on antioxidative activity,” Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel Untersuchung und-Forschung, May 1993: 196(5) 423-429.
  • 4. Terao, J., “Antioxidant activity of beta-carotene carotenoids in solution,” Lipids, July 1989: 24(7) 659-661.
  • 5. Mortensen, A., et al., “Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants,” FEBS Letters, November 24, 1997: 418(1-2) 91-97.
  • 6. Kurashige, M., et al, ” Inhibition of oxidative injury of biological membranes by astaxanthin,” Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR, 1990: 22(1) 27-38.
  • 7. Tinkler, JH, et al, “Dietary carotenoids protect human cells from damage,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, December 1994: 26(3) 283-285.
  • 8. Woodall, AA., et al, “Carotenoids and protection of phospholipids in solution or in liposomes against oxidation by peroxyl radicals: relationship between carotenoid structure and protective ability,” Biochimica Biophysica Acta, October 20, 1997: 1336(3) 575-586.
  • 9. Woodall, AA., et al., “Oxidation of carotenoids by free radicals: relationship between structure and reactivity,” Biochimica Biophysica Acta, July 19, 1997:1336(1) 33-42.
  • 10. Jyonouchi, H., et al, “Studies of immunomodulating actions of carotenoids. I. Effects of beta-carotene and astaxanthin on murine lymphocyte functions and cell surface marker expression in in vitro culture system,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1991: 16(2) 93-105.
  • 10a. Jyonouchi, H., et al, “Studies of immunomodulating actions of carotenoids. II. Astaxanthin Enhances In Vitro Antibody Production to T-Dependent Antigens Without Facilitating Polyclonal B-Cell Activation,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1993: 19(3) 269-280.
  • 11. Jyonouchi, H, et al, “Effects of various carotenoids on cloned, effector-stage T-helper cell activity,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1996: 26(3) 313-324.
  • 12. Okai, Y, et al, “Possible immunomodulating activities of carotenoids in in vitro cell culture experiments,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, December 1996: 18(12) 753-758.
  • 13. Gradelet, S., et al, “Effects of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, lycopene and lutein on liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the rat,” Xenobiotica, January 1996: 26(1) 49-63.
  • 14. Jyonouchi, H., et al, “Immunomodulating actions of carotenoids: enhancement of in vivo and in vitro antibody production to T-dependent antigens,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1994: 21(1) 47-58.
  • 15. Lee, SH, et al, “Effects, quenching mechanisms, and kinetics of carotenoids in chlorophyll-sensitized photooxidation of soybean oil,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, August 1990: 38(8) 1630-1634.
  • 16. Mortensen, A., et al, “Free radical transients in photobleaching of xanthophylls and carotenes,” Free Radical Research, June 1997: 26(6) 549-563.
  • 17. O’Connor, I., et al, “Modulation of UVA light-induced oxidative stress by beta-carotene, lutein and astaxanthin in cultured fibroblasts,” Journal of Dermatological Science, March 1998: 16(3) 226-230.
  • 18. Savoure, N., et al, “Vitamin A Status and Metabolism of Cutaneous Polyamines in the Hairless Mouse After UV Irradiation: Action of beta-carotene and astaxanthin,” Intl Jour Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 1995: 65(2) 79-86.
  • 19. Oshima, S., et al, “Inhibitory effect of beta-carotene and astaxanthin on photosensitized oxidation of phospholipid bilayers,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, December 1993: 39(6) 607-615.
  • 20. Mortensen, A., et al, “Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals. A real time kinetic study of antioxidant hierarchy,” FEBS Letters, November 17, 1997: 417(3) 261-266.
  • 21. Savoure, N., et al, “Vitamin A Status and Metabolism of Cutaneous Polyamines in the Hairless Mouse After UV Irradiation: Action of beta-carotene and astaxanthin,” Intl Jour Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 1995: 65(2) 79-86.
  • 22. Oshima, S., et al, “Inhibitory effect of beta-carotene and astaxanthin on photosensitized oxidation of phospholipid bilayers,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, December 1993: 39(6) 607-615.
  • 23. Mortensen, A., et al, “Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals. A real time kinetic study of antioxidant hierarchy,” FEBS Letters, November 17, 1997: 417(3) 261-266.
  • 24. Rich, MR., et al., “Dihydroxy-carotenoid liposomes inhibit phototoxicity in Paramecium caudatum,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1992: v. 56(3) 413-416.
  • 25. Chew, BP., et al., “A comparison of the anticancer activities of dietary beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in mice in vivo,” Anticancer Research, 1999: v. 19, 1849-1854.
  • 26. Tanaka, T. et al., “Chemoprevention of rat oral carcinogenesis by naturally occurring xanthophylls, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin,” Cancer Research, September 15, 1995: v. 55, 4059-4064.
  • 27. Tomita, Y., et al., “Preventive action of carotenoids on the development of lymphadenopathy and proteinuria in MRL-lpr/lpr mice,” Autoimmunity, 1993: v.16, 95-102.

Mechanism of Action:

  • 1. Kurashige, M., et al, ” Inhibition of Oxidative Injury of Biological Membranes by Astaxanthin,”
  • Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR, 1990: 22(1), 27-38.
  • 2. Tso, Mark O. M., Lam, Tim-Tak, “Method of Retarding and Ameliorating Central Nervous System and Eye Damage, Patent No. 5,527,533. Washington, D.C., U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, June 18, 1996.
  • 3. Pappert, E.J., et al, “Alpha-tocopherol in the Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid of Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Dose-response Study and Correlations with Plasma Levels,” Neurology, October 1996: 47(4), pp. 1037-42.
  • 4. Agus, D.B., et al., “Vitamin C Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier in the Oxidized Form Through the Glucose Transporters,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, December 1997: 100(11), pp. 2842-8.
  • 5. Lee, SH, et al, “Effects, Quenching Mechanisms, and Kinetics of Carotenoids in Chlorophyll-Sensitized Photooxidation of Soybean Oil,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, August
  • 1990: 38(8), pp. 1630-1634.
  • 6. Savoure, N., et al, “Vitamin A Status and Metabolism of Cutaneous Polyamines in the Hairless Mouse after UV Irradiation: Action of Beta-Carotene And Astaxanthin,” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 1995: 65(2), pp. 79-86.
  • 7. Rousseau, E.J., Davison, A.J., Dunn, B., “Protection by Beta-carotene and Related Compounds Against Oxygen-mediated Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity: Implications for Carcinogenesis and Anticarcinogenesis,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, October 1992: 13(4), pp. 407-433.
  • 8. Nakagawa, K, et al., “Inhibition of beta-carotene and astaxanthin of NADPH-dependent microsomal phospholipid peroxidation,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, June 1997: 43(3), pp. 345-355.
  • 9. Jyonouchi, H, et al, “Effects Of Various Carotenoids on Cloned, Effector-Stage T-Helper Cell Activity,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1996: 26(3), pp. 313-324.

Biological Activity:

  • 1. Miki, W., “Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids,” Pure Appl Chem, 1991: v.63(1) 141-146.
  • 2. Miki, W., et al., “Comparison of carotenoids in the ovaries of marine fish and shellfish,”” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 1982: v.71B, pp. 7-11.
  • 3. Gobantes, I., et al., “Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin Kinetics after Ingestion of Individual Doses by Immature Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss,” Jour Agricultural and Food Chemistry, February 1997: 45(2) 454-458.
  • 4. Petit, H., et al., “The effects of dietary astaxanthin on the carotenoid pattern of the prawn Penaeus japonicus during postlarval development,” Comparative Biochem and Physiology, Part A, Feb 1998: v. 119A(2) 523-527.
  • 5. Hinostroza, G., et al., “Pigmentation of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with oil-extracted astaxanthin from the langostilla (Pleuroncodes planipes),” Archivos Lationoamericanos De Nutricion, 1997: v. 47(3) 237-241.
  • 6. Guillou, A., et al., “Comparative accumulations of labelled carotenoids ( 14 C-Astaxanthin, 3 H-Canthaxanthin and 3 H-Zeaxanthin) and their metabolic conversions in mature female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss),” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 1992: v. 102B(1) 61-65.
  • 7. Tso, Mark O. M., Lam, Tim-Tak, “Method of Retarding and Ameliorating Central Nervous System and Eye Damage, Patent No. 5,527,533. Washington, D.C., U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, June 18, 1996.
  • 8. Wedekind, C., et al, “Different carotenoids and potential information content of red coloration of male three-spined stickleback,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, May 1998: v. 24(5) 787-801.
  • 9. Einen, O., “Quality characteristics in raw and smoked fillets of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, fed high-energy diets,” Aquaculture Nutrition, June 1998: v. 4(2) pp. 99-108.
  • 10. Rice, Robert, “”Bird of the Month, May 1997: The Moveable Feaster Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum) Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, http://www.si.edu/organiza/museums/zoo/zooview/smbc/cewa.htm.
  • 11. Egeland, ES., et al., “Research Note: Carotenoids in combs of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) fed defined diets,” Poultry Science, 1993: 72, pp. 747-751.
  • 12. Goldsmith, T., et al., “The cone oil droplets of avian retinas,” Vision Research, 1984: v.24(11) pp. 1661-1671.
  • 13. Brush, A., “Metabolism of carotenoid pigments in birds,” FASEB Journal, 1990: v. 4, pp. 2969-2977.
  • 14. Durr, S., “Haematococcus: a common inhabitant of bird baths,” www.micscape.simplenet.com/.
  • 15. Muhkebe, MO, “Flamingos flee Lake Nakuru,” SafariMate News & Briefs, www.safariweb.com/safarimate.
  • 16. Chew, B.P. , et al., “Dietary Beta-Carotene and Astaxanthin but not Canthaxanthin Stimulate Splenocyte Function in Mice,” Anticancer Research, December 1999.
  • 17. Osterlie, M., et al., “On Bioavailability and Deposition of bent Z-Isomers of Astaxanthin,” Madrid, 1999.
  • 18. Malmsten, C., “Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin-Rich Algal Meal Improves Muscle Endurance – a double blind study on male students.” Unpublished study from the Karolinska Institut. Gustavsberg, Sweden, 1998.
  • 19. Lignell, A., et al., “Symptom improvement in Helicobacter pylori-positive non-ulcer dyspeptic patients after treatment with the carotenoid astaxanthin,” Published in: Proceedings of the 12 the International Carotenoid Symposium, 1999. Cairns, Australia.

Strength and Endurance:

  • 1. Malmsten, C.L., “Dietary supplement with astaxanthin – Rich algal meal improves muscle endurance – A double blind study on male students” Cancer Prevention
  • 1. Gradelet, S, et al., “Dietary carotenoids inhibit aflatoxin B1-induced liver preneoplastic foci and DNA damage in the rat,” Carcinogenesis, March 1998: 19(3) pp. 403-411.
  • 2. Gradelet, S, et al., “Effects of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, lycopene and lutein on liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the rat,” Xenobiotica, January 1996: 26(1) pp. 49-63.
  • 3. Mori, H., et al., “Chemoprevention by naturally occurring and synthetic agents in oral, liver and large bowel carcinogenesis,” Journal of Cell Biochemistry, Supplement, 1997: 27, pp. 35-41.
  • 4. Lim, B.P., A. Nagao, et al. (1992). “Antioxidant activity of xanthophylls on peroxyl radical-mediated phospholipid peroxidation,” Biochim-Biophys-Acta 1126(2): 178-84.
  • 5. Astorg, P., et al., “Effects of provitamin A or non-provitamin A carotenoids on liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in mice,” Nutrition of Cancer, 1997: 27(3) pp. 245-249.
  • 6. Rousseau, EJ, et al., “Protection by beta-carotene and related compounds against oxygen-mediated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity: implications for carcinogenesis and anticarcinogenesis,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, October 1992: 13(4) pp. 407-433.
  • 7. Tanaka, T., et al., “Suppression of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by dietary administration of naturally occurring xanthophylls-2-astaxanthin and canthaxanthin during the postinitiation phase,” Carcinogenesis, December 1995: 16(12) pp. 2957-2963.
  • 8. Tanaka, T., et al., “Chemoprevention of rat oral carcinogenesis by naturally occurring xanthophylls, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin,” Cancer Research, September 15, 1995: 55(18) pp. 4059-4064.
  • 9. DiMascio, P., et al., “Carotenoids, tocopherols and thiols as biological singlet molecular oxygen quenchers,” Biochemical Society Transactions, 1990: 18, pp. 1054-1056.

Light Protection (Human Eye and Skin):

  • 1. Gonzalez, JE, “Improved indicators of cell membrane potential that use fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Chemical Biology, April 1997: 4(4) pp. 269-277.
  • 2. Kobayashi, M., “Antioxidant role of astaxanthin in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, September 1997: 48(3) pp. 351-356.
  • 3. Fan, L., et al., “Does astaxanthin protect Haematococcus against light damage?” Zeitschrift für Naturforschrift, January 1998: 53(1-2) pp. 93-100.
  • 4. O’Connor, I, et al., “Modulation of UVA light-induced oxidative stress by beta-carotene, lutein and astaxanthin in cultured fibroblasts,” Journal of Dermatological Science, March 1998: 16(3) pp. 226-230.
  • 5. Savoure, N., et al., “Vitamin A status and metabolism of cutaneous polyamines in the hairless mouse after UV irradiation: action of beta-carotene and astaxanthin,” International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 1995: 65(2), pp. 79-86.
  • 6. Tinkler, JH, et al, “Dietary carotenoids protect human cells from damage,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, December 1994: 26(3), pp. 283-285.
  • 7. Lee, SH, et al, “Effects, quenching mechanisms, and kinetics of carotenoids in chlorophyll-sensitized photooxidation of soybean oil,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, August 1990: 38(8), pp. 1630-1634.
  • 8. Mortensen, A., et al, “Free radical transients in photobleaching of xanthophylls and carotenes,” Free Radical Research, June 1997: 26(6), pp. 549-563.
  • 9. Oshima, S., et al, “Inhibitory effect of beta-carotene and astaxanthin on photosensitized oxidation of phospholipid bilayers,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, December 1993: 39(6), pp. 607-615.
  • 10. Goldsmith, T., et al, “The Cone Oil Droplets of Avian Retinas,” Vision Research, 1984: 24(11) pp. 1661-1671.
  • 11. Miki, W., “Biological Functions and Activities of Animal Carotenoids,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1991: 63(1) pp. 141-146.
  • 12. Tso, Mark O. M., Lam, Tim-Tak, “Method of Retarding and Ameliorating Central Nervous System and Eye Damage, Patent No. 5,527,533. Washington, D.C., U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, June 18, 1996.

Cardiovascular Protection:

  • 1. Nagakawa, K., et al., “Inhibition of beta-carotene and astaxanthin of NADPH-dependent microsomal phospholipid peroxidation,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, June 1997: 43(3) 345-355.
  • 2. Jorgensen, K., “Carotenoid scavenging of radicals. Effect of carotenoid structure and oxygen partial pressure on antioxidative activity,” Zeitschrift Lebensm Unters Forsch, May 1993: 196(5) 423-429.
  • 3. Tomita, Y, et al., “Preventive action of carotenoids on the development of lymphadenopathy and proteinuria in MRL-lpr/lpr mice,” Autoimmunity, 1993: 16(2) 95-102.
  • 4. Murillo, E., “Hypercholesterolemic effect of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in rats,” Arch Latinoam Nutr, December 1992: 42(4) 409-413.
  • 5. Terao, J., “Antioxidant activity of beta-carotene carotenoids in solution,” Lipids, July 1989: 24(7) 659-661.
  • 6. Mortensen, A., et al., “Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants,” FEBS Letters, November 24, 1997: 418(1-2) 91-97.
  • 7. Kurashige, M., et al, ” Inhibition of oxidative injury of biological membranes by astaxanthin,” Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR, 1990: 22(1) 27-38.
  • 8. Woodall, AA., et al, “Carotenoids and protection of phospholipids in solution or in liposomes against oxidation by peroxyl radicals: relationship between carotenoid structure and protective ability,” Biochimica Biophysica Acta, October 20, 1997: 1336(3) 575-586.
  • 9. Woodall, AA., et al., “Oxidation of carotenoids by free radicals: relationship between structure and reactivity,” Biochimica Biophysica Acta, July 19, 1997:1336(1), pp. 33-42.
  • 10. Mortensen, A., et al, “Relative stability of carotenoid radical cations and homologue tocopheroxyl radicals. A real time kinetic study of antioxidant hierarchy,” FEBS Letters, November 17, 1997: 417(3), pp. 261-266.
  • 11. Palozza, P, Krinsky, N, “Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are potent antioixdants in a membrane model,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, September 1992: 297(2) pp. 291-295.

Immunity:

  • 1. Jyonouchi, H., et al., “Effects of various carotenoids on cloned, effector-stage T-helper cell activity,” Nutrition of Cancer, 1996: 26(3) 313-324.
  • 2. Jyonouchi, H., et al, “Studies of immunomodulating actions of carotenoids. I. Effects of beta-carotene and astaxanthin on murine lymphocyte functions and cell surface marker expression in in vitro culture system,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1991: 16(2) 93-105.
  • 3. Jyonouchi, H., et al., “Studies of immunomodulating actions of carotenoids. II. Astaxanthin enhances in vitro antibody production to T-dependent antigens without facilitating polyclonal B-cell activation,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1993: 19(3) pp. 269-280.
  • 4. Jyonouchi, H, et al., “Immunomodulating actions of carotenoids: enhancement of
    in vivo and in vitro antibody production to T-dependent antigens,”
    Nutrition and Cancer, 1994: 21(1), pp. 47-58. -5-
  • 5. Jyonouchi, H., et al., “Astaxanthin, a carotenoid without Vitamin A activity,
    augments antibody responses in cultures including T-helper cell clones and suboptimal doses of antigen,” Journal of Nutrition, October 1995: 125(10) pp. 2483-2492.
  • 6. Jyonouchi, H., et al., “Astaxanthin, a carotenoid without Vitamin A activity enhances in vitro immunoglobulin production in response to a T-dependent stimulant and antigen,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1995: 23(2) pp. 171-183.
  • 12. Okai, Y, et al, “Possible immunomodulating activities of carotenoids in in vitro cell culture experiments,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, December 1996: 18(12), pp. 753-758.
  • 13. Wolz, E., et al., “Characterization of Metabolites of Astaxanthin in Primary Cultures of Rat Hepatocytes,” Drug metabolism and Disposition, April 1999: 27(4) pp. 456-462.

Bioavailability:

  • 1. Gobantes, I, et al., “Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin kinetics after ingestion of individual doses by immature rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss,” Jour Agricultural and Food Chemistry, February 1997: 45(2) 454-458.
  • 2. White, W.S., et a., “Pharmacokinetics of B?-Carotene and Canthaxanthin after Ingestion of Individual and Combined Doses by Human Subjects,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1994, v. 13(6) 665-671.

Sources in Nature:

  • 1. Pickova, J., et al., “Comparison of fatty acid composition and astaxanthin content in healthy and by M74 affected salmon eggs from three Swedish river stocks,” Comp Biochem and Physiology, Part B, 1998, v. 120: 265-271.
  • 2. Johnson, E., et al., “Pigmentation of Egg Yolks with Astaxanthin from the Yeast Phaffia rhodozyma,” Poultry Science, 1980, v. 59: 1777-1782.
  • 3. Egeland, E.S., et al., “Research Note: Carotenoids in Combs of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) Fed Defined Diets,” Poultry Science, 1993, v. 72: 747-751.
  • 4. Vernon-Carter, E.J., et al., “Pigmentation of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) using Aztec marigold (Tagetes erecta) extracts as the carotenoid source,” Archivos LatinoAmer de Nutricion, 1996, v.46(3): 243-246.
  • 5. Goldsmith, T., et al., “The Cone Oil Droplets of Avian Retinas,” Vision Res, 1984, v. 24(11): 1661-1671.
  • 6. Miki, W., et al., “Comparision of Carotenoids in the Ovaries of Marine Fish and Shellfish,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B, 1982, v.71: 7-11.
  • 7. Brush, A., “Metabolism of Carotenoid Pigments in Birds,” FASEB Journal, September 1990, v. 4: pp. 2969-2977.
  • 8. Hinostroza, G C, et al., “Pigmentation of the Rainbow Trout with Oil-extracted Astaxanthin from the Langostilla,” Archivos LatinoAmer de Nutricion, 1997, v. 47(3): 237-241.

General Bibliography:

  • 1. Agarwal, S and Rao, AV, “Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study,” Lipids, October 1998: 33(10) 981-984.
  • 2. Agus, DB, et al., “Vitamin C crosses the blood-brain barrier in the oxidized form through the glucose transporters,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, December 1997: v. 100(11) 2842-2848.
  • 3. Burlakova, EB, et al., “The role of tocopherols in biomembrane lipid peroxidation,” Membrane and Cell Biology, 1998: v.12(2) 173-211.
  • 4. Burton, GW, et al., “Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic Vitamin E,” Amer Jour Clinical Nutrition, April 1998: v.67(4) 669-684.
  • 5. Dugas, TR, et al., “Dietary supplementation with beta-carotene, but not with lycopene, inhibits endothelial cell-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein,” Free Radical Biol and Med, May 1999: v. 26(9-10) 1238-1244.
  • 6. Gerster, H, “Anticarcinogenic effect of common carotenoids,” Intl Jour Vit and Nutri Res, 1993: v. 63, 93-121.
  • 7. Khachik, F., et al., “Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, August 1997: v. 38(9) pp. 1802-11.
  • 8. Klebanov, GI, et al., “The antioxidant properties of lycopene,” Membrane and Cell Biol, 1998: v.12(2) 287-300.
  • 9. Krutovskikh, V, et al., “Differential dose-dependent effects of alpha-, beta-carotenes and lycopene on gap-junctional communication in rat liver in vivo,” Jap Jour of Cancer Res, Dec 1997: v. 88(12) 1121-1124.
  • 10. Kurashige, M., et al., “Inhibition of oxidative injury of biological membranes by astaxanthin,” Physiological Chemistry, Physics and Medicine NMR, 1990: v. 22, 27-38.
  • 11. MacDonald, PN, et al., “Localization of cellular retinol-binding protein and retinol-binding protein in cells comprising the blood-brain barrier of rat and human,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U.S.A., June 1990: v. 87(11) 4265-4269.
  • 12. Miki, W., “Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids,” Pure Appl Chem, 1991: v. 63(1)141-146.
  • 13. Moyad, MA, “Vitamin E, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, and prostate cancer,” Sem in Urologic Onco, May 1999: v.17(2) 85-90.
  • 14. Nishino, H., “Cancer prevention by natural carotenoids,” Jour Cell Biochem Supplement, 1997: v. 27, 86-91.
  • 15. Pappert, EJ, et al., “Alpha-tocopherol in the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson’s disease patients: dose-response study and correlation with plasma levels,” Neurology, October 1996: v. 47(4) 1037-1042.
  • 16. Park, JS, et al., “Dietary lutein but not astaxanthin or beta-carotene increases pim-1 gene expression in murine lymphocytes,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1999: v. 33(2) 206-212.
  • 17. Shaish, A., et al., “Dietary beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol combination does not inhibit atherogenesis in an ApoE-deficient mouse model,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biol, June 1999: v. 19(6) 1470-1475.
  • 18. Shukla, A, et al., “Status of antioxidants in brain microvessels of monkey and rat,” Free Radical Research, April 1995: v. 22(4) 303-308.
  • 19. Sies, H. and Stahl, W., ” Lycopene: antioxidant and biological effects and its bioavailability in the human,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, June 1998: v. 218(2) pp. 121-124.
  • 20 Sies, H., et al., “Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamin E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids,” Annals of the New York Academy of Science, September 1992: v. 669 pp. 7-20.
  • 21. Sies, H. and Stahl, W., “Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, December 1995: v. 62(6 Suppl) pp. 1315S-1321S.
  • 22. Stahl, W., and Sies, H., “Antioxidant defense: Vitamins E and C and carotenoids,” Diabetes, September 1997: v. 46(Suppl 2) pp. S14-18.
  • 23. Stahl, W., et al., “Carotenoid mixtures protect multilamellar liposomes against oxidative damage: synergistic effects of lycopene and lutein,” FEBS Letters, May 1998: v. 427(2) pp. 305-308.
  • 24. Stahl, W., and Sies, H., “Lycopene: a biologically important carotenoid for humans?” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, December 1996: v. 336(1) pp. 1-9.
  • 25. Stahl, W. and Sies, H., “The role of carotenoids and retinoids in gap junctional communication,” Internaitonal Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 1998: v. 68(6) pp. 354-359.
  • 26. DiMascio, P., et al., “Carotenoids, tocopherols and thiols as biological singlet molecular oxygen quenchers,” Biochemical Society Transactions, 1990: v. 18 pp. 1054-1056.
  • 27. Fukuzawa, K., et al., “Rate constants for quenching singlet oxygen and activities for inhibiting lipid peroxidation of carotenoids and a-tocopherol in liposomes,” Lipids, 1998: v. 33(8) pp. 751-756.
  • 28. Jyonouchi, H., et al., “Studies of immunomodulating actions of carotenoids. I. Effects of beta-carotene and astaxanthin on murine lymphocyte functions and cell surface marker expression in in vitro culture system,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1991: v. 16 pp. 93-105.
  • 29. Jyonouchi, H., et al., “Immunomodulating actions of carotenoids: Enhancement of In Vivo and In Vitro antibody production to T-dependent antigens,” Nutrition and Cancer, 1994: v. 21 pp. 47-58.
  • 30. Zhang, LX., et al., “Carotenoids enhance gap junctional communication and inhibit lipid peroxidation on C3H/10T1/2 cells: relationship to cancer preventive action,” Carcinogenesis, Nov 1991: v. 12(11) 2109-2114.
  • 31. Zhang, LX, et al., “Upregulation of gap junctional communication and connexin43 gene expression by carotenoids in human dermal fibroblasts but not in human keratinocytes,” Molec Carcino, Jan 1995: v. 12(1) 50-58.
  • 32. Sies, H. and Stahl, W., “Carotenoids and intercellular communication via gap junctions,” International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 1997: v. 67(5) 364-367.

OTHER REFERENCES BY CONDITIONS


ADD/ADHD

Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning and health problems – Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Abate ML, Kuczek T, Burgess JR., Physiol Behav. 1996;59(4/5):915-920.

Potential link between dietary intake of fatty acid and behavior: pilot exploration of serum lipids in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder – Arnold LE, Kleykamp D, Votolato N, Gibson RA, Horrocks L. – J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 1994;4(3):171-182.

Alternative and controversial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – Baumgaertel A. Pediatr Clin of North Am. 1999;46(5):977-992.

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder – Burgess J, Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L. . Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71(suppl):327S-330S.

Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder – Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, et al., Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:761-768.

Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children – Mitchell EA, Aman MG, Turbott SH, Manku M., Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1987;26:406-411.

The potential role of fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – Richardson AJ, Puri BK., Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000;63(1/2):79-87.


ANEMIA

Clinical experiences of administration of spirulina to patients with hypo chronic anemia – T. Takeuchi et al. 1978. Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
Eight women had been limiting their meals to stay thin and were showing hypo chronic anemia-lower than normal blood hemoglobin content. They took four grams of spirulina after each meal. After 30 days blood hemoglobin content increased 21 % from 10.9 to 13.2, a satisfactory level, no longer considered anemic.


ANTI VIRAL

AIDS/HIV – Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) – Ayehunie S.1, Belay A.2, Hu Y.1, Baba T.1,3, Ruprecht R.1

1 – Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

2 – Earthrise Farms, Calipatria, CA, USA.

3 – Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Water extract of spirulina strain Platensis (Arthrospira platensis) inhibits HIV-1 replication in human derived T-cells and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A concentration of 5-10 mcg/mi was found to reduce viral production and/or syncytium formulation of about 50 %, and a concentration of 100 mcg/ml show a 90-100 % inhibition without cytotoxicity. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) for cell growth was computed to be between 2-6.5 mg/ml depending on the cell types used; the therapeutic index was >100. The extract also blocked Rauscher murine leukemia virus (RL V)-induced plaque by 95 % at concentrations ranging from 75-150 mcg/ml. The 50 % reduction in plaque formation (50 % effective concentration or EC50) was at a concentration of 9-30 mcg/ml. The extract directly inactivated HIV-1 infectivity when preincubated with virus prior to addition with human T-cell lines at similar inhibitory concentrations.

HERPES – An extract from spirulina is a selective inhibitor of Herpes Simplex virus type 1 penetration into Hela cells – Hayashi et al. 1993. Pub. in Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 7, p. 76-80, Japan
The water-soluble extract of spirulina achieved a dose-dependent inhibition of the replication of Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in Hela cells within the concentration ranges of 0.08-50 mg/ml. This extract proved to have no virucidal activity and did not interfere with adsorption to host cells. However, the extract affected to viral penetration in a dose-dependent manner. At 1 mg/ml the extract was found to inhibit virus-specific protein synthesis without suppressing host cell protein synthesis if added to the cells 3 hours before hamsters at doses of 100 and 500 mg/kg a day.

AIDS antiviral sulfolipids from cyanobacteria (blue green algae) -K. Gustafson et al. August 16, 1989. Pub. in journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 81(16) p. 1254, USA.
Sulfoglycolipids from blue green algae exhibit strong antiviral properties. Helper T-cells exposed to blue green algae sulfoglycolipids were protected from HIV-1 infection in vitro studies.
Beta-carotene, Cancer Prevention and Health Improvement


CANCER

Inhibition of experimental oral carcinogenesis by topical beta-carotene – Schwartz et al. 1986. Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Pub. In Carcinogenesis, May 1986, Vol. 7 (5), p. 711-715, USA. Beta-carotene was found to significantly inhibit the formation of squamous cell carcinoma of hamster buccal pouch when a solution was applied topically three times weekly for 22 weeks in an experiment with 4 hamsters. In a second experiment with 80 hamsters, beta-carotene was found to inhibit oral carcinogenesis in an initiation-promotion hamsters buccal pouch system. Beta-carotene inhibited both initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

Effect of gamma-linolenic acid on cellular uptake of structurally related anthracyclines in human drug sensitive and multidrug resistant bladder and breast cancer cell lines – Davies CL, Loizidou M, Cooper AJ, et al. Eur J Cancer. 1999;35:1534-1540.

Effects of dietary gamma-linolenic acid on blood pressure and adrenal angiotensin receptors in hypertensive rats – Engler MM, Schambelan M, Engler MB, Ball DL, Goodfriend TL. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;218(3):234-237.

Gamma linolenic acid with tamoxifen as primary therapy tn breast cancer – Kenny FS, Pinder SE, Ellis IO et al., Int J Cancer. 2000;85:643-648.

Effects of gamma-linolenic acid and oleic acid on paclitaxel cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells – Menendez JA, del Mar Barbacid M, Montero S, et al., Eur J Cancer. 2001;37:402-413.

Effect of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on the survival of vincristine sensitive and resistant human cervical carcinoma cells in vitro – Madhavi N, Das UN., Cancer Lett. 1994;84:31-41.

Gamma linolenic acid alters the cytotoxic activity of anticancer drugs on cultured human neuroblastoma cells – Ikushima S, Fujiwara F, Todo S, Imashuku S., Anticancer Res. 1990;10:1055-1059.

Inhibitory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on sigmoid colon cancer transformants – Tsai W-S, Nagawa H, Kaizaki S, Tsuruo T, Muto T., J Gastroenterol. 1998;33:206-212.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids promote colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver – Griffini P, Fehres O, Klieverik L, et al. Cancer Res. 1998;58:3312-3319.

Breast cancer and the Western diet: role of fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins – Stoll BA., Eur J Cancer. 1998;34(12):1852-1856.

Differential modulation by dietary n-6 or n-9 unsaturated fatty acids on the development of two murine mammary gland tumors having different metastatic capabilities – Munoz SE, Lopez CB, Valentich MA, Eynard AR., Cancer Lett. 1998;126:149-155.

Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the drug sensitivity of human tumour cell lines resistant to either cisplatin or doxorubicin – Plumb JA, Luo W, Kerr DJ., Br J Cancer. 1993;67:728-733.


CARDIOVASCULAR

Randomized controlled trial of gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in peripheral arterial disease – Leng GC, Lee AJ, Fowkes FG, et al., Clin Nutr. 1998;17(6):265—271

Gamma linolenic acid causes weight loss and lower blood pressure in overweight patients with family history of obesity – Garcia CM, et al., Swed J Biol Med. 1986;4:8-11.

Seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and fatty acid intake: a cross-sectional study in Japan – Wakai K, Okamoto K, Tamakoshi A, Lin Y, Nakayama T, Ohno Y., Ann Epidemiol. 2001;11(1):59-64.


CHOLESTEROL REDUCTION

Cholesterol lowering effect of spirulina
N. Nayaka et al. 1988. Tokai University. Pub. In Nutrition Reports Int’l, Vol. 37, No. 6, p. 1329-1337, Japan.
Thirty healthy men with high cholesterol, mild hypertension and hyperlipidemia showed lower serum cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL (undesirable fat) levels after eating spirulina for eight weeks. These men did not change their diet, except adding spirulina. No adverse effects were noted. Group A consumed 4.2 grams daily for eight weeks. Total serum cholesterol dropped a significant 4.5 % within 4 weeks from 244 to 233. Group B consumed spirulina for four weeks, then stopped. Serum cholesterol levels decreased, then returned to initial level. Researchers concluded spirulina did lower serum cholesterol and was likely to have a favorable effect on alleviating heart disease since the arterioscelosis index improved.

The effect of spirulina on reduction of serum cholesterol
N. Nayaka et al. 1986. Tokai University. Pub. In Progress in Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 11, Japan.


DEPRESSION

Dieting, essential fatty acid intake, and depression – Bruinsma KA, Taren DL. Nutrition Rev. 2000;58(4):98-108.


DIABETES

Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid – Keen H, Payan J, AllawiJ, et al., The Gamma-Linolenic Acid Multicenter Trial Group. Diabetes Care. 1993;16(1):8-15.

Prevention of nerve conduction deficit in diabetic rats by polyunsaturated fatty acids – Head RJ, McLennan PL, Raederstorff D, Muggli R, Burnard SL, McMurchie EJ., Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:386S-392S.


DETOXIFICATION

Effect of spirulina on the renal toxicity induced by inorganic mercury and cisplatin – H. Fukino et al. 1990. Pub. In Eisei Kagaku, Vol. 36 (5), 1990. Japan.
Kidney toxicity caused by mercury was suppressed by feeding spirulina to rats. A water-soluble extract of spirulina, containing phycocyanin, the natural blue pigment, was examined. Renal (kidney) toxicity in rats caused by para-aminophenal (pain reliever) and cisplatin (anti-cancer) was significantly reduced by the phycocyanin extract of spirulina. Researchers concluded that phycocyanin plays a major role in the protective effect of spirulina against renal failure caused by mercury and pharmaceutical drugs, and that spirulina might be applicable to the general renal disfunction.

Alteration of cyclosporine (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity by gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in Wistar rats – Morphake P, Bariety J, Darlametsos J, et al., Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1994;50:29-35.


DIGESTION

Effect of evening primrose oil on gastric ulceration and secretion induced by various ulcerogenic and necrotizing agents in rats. – al-Sabanah OA. Food Chem Toxicol. 1997;35(8):769-775.

Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on dexamethasone-induced gastric mucosal damage – Manjari V, Das UN., Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000;62(2):85-96.

Nutritional modulation of mineralocorticoid and prostaglandin production: potential role in prevention and treatment of gastic pathology – McCarty MF., Med Hypotheses. 1983;11(4):381-389

Inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth of Helicobacter pylori: a possible explanation of the effect of diet on peptic ulceration – Thompson L, Cockayne A, Spiller RC., Gut. 1994;35(11):1557-1561.


IMMUNITY

Polysaccharides and Immune System Improvement – Calcium spirulina, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green algae spirulina – Hayashi et al. 1996. Pub. In Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 59, p. 83-87. Japan.
Bioactivity is directed from fractionation of a hot water extract of blue green algae. Spirulina strain platensis led to the isolation of a novel sulfated polysaccharide named calcium spirulina (Ca-SP) as an antiviral principle. This polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, ribose, mannose, fructose, galactose, xylose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, sulfate and calcium. Ca-SP was found to inhibit the replication of several enveloped viruses, including Herpes Simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, measles virus, mump virus, influenza A virus and HIV-1. It was revealed that Ca-SP selectively inhibited the penetration of virus into host cells. Retention of molecular conformation of calcium ion with sulfate groups was suggested to be indispensable to its antiviral effect.

Enhancement of antibody production in mice by dietary spirulina
Hayashi et al. June 1994. Kagawa Nutrition University, Japan. Pub. In Journal of Nutrition Science and Vitaminology, Japan.
Mice fed a spirulina diet showed increased numbers of spleenic antibody-producing cells in the primary immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). However, immunoglobulin G (IgE)-antibody production in the secondary immune response was hardly affected. The percentage of phagocytotic cells in peritoneal macrophages from the mice fed spirulina diet, as well as the proliferation of spleen cells, was significantly increased. Addition of hot-water extract of spirulina (SHW) to an in vitro culture of spleen cells markedly increased proliferation these cells, whereas culture of thymus cells was scarcely affected. The spirulina extract also significantly enhanced interleukin-1 (IL-1) production from peritoneal macrophages. Addition to the in vitro spleen cell culture of SHW as well as the supernatant of macrophages stimulated with SHW resulted in enhancement of antibody production that is an increase of the number of PFC. These results suggest that spirulina enhances the immune response, particularly the primary response, by stimulating functions, phagocytosis and IL-1 production.

Immunostimulating activity of lipopolysaccharides from blue-green algae
L. Besednova et al. 1979. Pub in Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Immunobiologii, Vol. 56 (12), p. 75-79, Russia. The whole cells of blue green algae and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) isolated from these cells were shown to stimulate the production of microglobulin antibodies in rabbits. The macro- and microphage indices in rabbits increased significantly after the injection of LPS isolated from blue green algae 24-48 hrs before injecting the animals with a virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis strain. Besides, the inhibiting action of this strain on the migration of phagocytes to the site of infection was abolished immediately after the injection. The use of the indirect hemaglutination test allow to provide the absence of close antigenic interrelations between blue green algae and the following organisms: Spirulina platensis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Phormidium africanum and P. uniccinatum.

Study on effect and mechanism of polysaccharides of spirulina on body immune function improvement – G. Baojiang et al. April 1994. South China Normal University. Pub. In Proceed of Second Asia Pacific Conference on Algal Biotechnology, University of Malaysia, p. 33-38, China.
Polysaccharides of spirulina, at the dosage of 150-300 mg/kg, by injection or taking orally, can increase the phagocyte percentage index of abdominal macrophage, the percentage of T-lymphocyte and haemolysin content in the peripheral blood of mouse. These results demonstrate polysaccharides can improve both the nonspecific function of cellular immunity and the specific hormonal immunity. The mechanism seems related to fact that polysaccharides can enhance reproductive ability of marrowcyte, growth of thymus and spleen, biosynthesis of serum protein, and that polysaccharide can eliminate the inhibition effect of inhibitive circular phosphamide on immune system of body.


MISCELLENEOUS

Addition of eicosapentaenoic acid to gamma-linolenic acid-supplemented diets prevents serum arachidonic acid accumulation in humans – Barham JB, Edens MB, Fonteh AN, Johnson MM, Easter L, Chilton FH., J Nutr. 2000;130(8):1925-1931.

Fatty acids and atopic disease -Calder PC, Miles EA. – Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2000;11 Suppl 13:29-36.

The effects of chronic ethanol administration on rat liver and erythrocyte lipid composition – Corbett R, Menez JF, Flock HH, Leonard BE. 1991;26(4);459-464.


PREMENSTRUAL MENOPAUSAL SYMPTONS (PMS)

The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms – Bendich A., J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(1):3-12.

Effect of oral gamma linolenic acid on menopausal flushing – Chenoy R, Hussain S, Tayob Y, O’Brien PM, Moss MY, Morse PF. BMJ. 1994;19(308):501-503.

The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in the premenstrual syndrome – Horrobin DF., J Reprod Med. 1983;28(7):465-468.


VISION AND EYES

Nutrition supplements and the eye – Brown NA, Brown AJ, Harding JJ, Dewar HM. 1998; 12(pt. 1):127-133.


RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and rheumatoid arthritis – Calder PC, Zurier RB., Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001;4(2):115-121.

Antioxidants and fatty acids in the amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders – Darlington LG, Stone TW. Br J Nutr. 2001;85(3):251-269.

Gamma linolenic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory properties, blocks amplification of IL-1 beta production by human monocytes – Furse RK, Rossetti RG, Zurier RB, J Immunol. 2001;1;167(1):490-496.

Botanical lipids: effects on inflammation, immune responses, and rheumatoid arthritis – Rothman D, DeLuca P, Zurier RB., Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1995;25(2):87-96.


HEALTH AND NUTRITION

Effectiveness of spirulina algae as food for children with protein-energy malnutrition in a tropical environment – P. Bucaille 1990. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.

The study on curative effect of zinc containing spirulina for zinc deficient children – Yonghuang et al. 1994. Capital Medical College, Beijing. Presented at 5th Int’l Phycological Congress, Qingdao, June 1994, China.

Spirulina with high zinc content may be twice as effective as a zinc supplement in curing zinc deficiency in children. – The effective dose of zinc from spirulina was 2 to 4 times less than the zinc from a common supplement, zinc sulfate. More than two times the children were cured with high zinc spirulina. One hundred children were diagnosed as suffering from zinc deficiency. For a three-month period, 50 children were given zinc sulfate and 50 were given spirulina tablets. Doctors concluded spirulina’s effect was much better than zinc sulfate. Spirulina had no side effects and was easy to administer for long periods of time. They theorized that high zinc spirulina had many bioactive and nutritious substances, which improved mineral absorption, general health and the immune system.

Importance of dietary gamma-linolenic acid in human health and nutrition – Fan YY, Chapkin RS. J Nutr. 1998; 128(9): 1411-1414.

A polyunsaturated fatty acid diet lowers blood pressure and improves antioxidant status in spontaneously hypertensive rats – Frenoux JMR, Prost ED, Belleville JL, Prost JL., J Nutr. 2001;131(1):39-45.

Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease – Simopoulos AP., Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3 suppl):560S-569S.

Spirulina: a model for micro algae as human food – Alan Jassby 1988. In Algae and Human Affairs. Edited by Lembi and Waaland. Pub. By Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
This is an evaluation of the food potential of micro algae using proven technology. Numerous examples of traditional use of inland micro algae are cited from more than 15 countries. The nutritional aspects of spirulina stand out. Spirulina’s safety for human consumption, food applications, economics and environmental aspects, world spirulina production, production costs and therapeutic applications are reviewed. How micro algae can address world hunger problems is addresses with mention of harvesting wild algae and village scale production systems.

Bioavailability of spirulina carotenes in pre-school children – V. Annapurna et al. 1991. National Institute of Nutrition, Vol. 10, p. 145-151, India.
The bioavailability of total carotenes and beta-carotene from spirulina was examined in apparently healthy preschool children and found to be comparable to those value reported for other plant sources like leafy vegetables and carrots. The study also showed spirulina is a good source of vitamin A, as there was a significant increase in serum retinal levels. Researchers concluded that spirulina can be used as a source of vitamin A for dietary supplement, is relatively inexpensive, has higher beta-carotene than any other plant sources and can be cultivated throughout the year.

Current knowledge on potential health benefits of spirulina – Amha Belay and Yoshimical Ota 1993. Pub. in Journal of Applied Phycology, Vol. 5, p. 235-241, USA.
Spirulina is a microscopic algae, produced commercially and sold as a food supplement around the world. Until recently, interest in spirulina was mainly in its nutritive value. This is a critical review of data on therapeutic effects of spirulina, ranging from reduction of cholesterol and cancer to enhancing the immune system, increasing intestinal lactobacilli, reducing nephrotoxicity by heavy metals and drugs as well as radiation protection.


WEIGHT LOSS

Clinical and biochemical evaluations of spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity – E. W. Becker et al. 1986. Inst. Chem. Pfanz. Pub. In Nutrition Reports Int’l, Vol. 33, No. 4, p. 565, Germany.

Gamma linolenic acid causes weight loss and lower blood pressure in overweight patients with family history of obesity – Garcia CM, et al., Swed J Biol Med. 1986;4:8-11.

In vitro interactions of gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid with ceftazidime on multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Grecka P, Dionyssiou-Asteriou A, et al. Lipids. 1999;34:S151-152.


SKIN CONDITIONS

Atopic dermatitis: unapproved treatments or indications – Graham-Brown R. Clin Dermatol. 2000;18(2):153-158.

Treatment in atopic dermatitis and asthma – Hederos CA, Berg A. Arch Dis Child. 1996;75(6):494-497

Meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies of the efficacy of Epogram in the treatment of atopic eczema: relationship between plasma essential fatty changes and treatment response – Morse PF, Horrobin DF, Manku MS, et al., Br J Dermatol. 1989;121(1):75-90.

Novel unconventional therapeutic approaches to atopic eczema – Worm M, Henz BM., Dermatology. 2000;201(3):191-195.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal diet, breast milk, and serum lipid fattty acids of infants in relation to atopy – Kankaanpaa P, Nurmela K, Erkkila A, et al., Allergy. 2001;56(7):633-638.


OSTEOPOROSIS

Gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis – Kruger MC, Coetzer H, de Winter R, Gericke G, van Papendorp DH. Calcium, Aging Clin Exp Res. 1998;10:385-394.

Calcium metabolism, osteoporosis and essential fatty acids: a review – Kruger MC, Horrobin DF., Prog Lipid Res. 1997;36:131-151.


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